Based on that we conclude that glioma is caused by RF radiation. Revision of current guidelines
The authors allege that official bodies that have reviewed the evidence on mobile phone use and health risks have been dominated by individuals with conflicts of interest. Moreover, these reviewers have relied upon data from methodologically unsound studies, including the Danish Cohort Study and a UK cohort study, to dismiss the evidence from case-control studies.
Objective. Bradford Hill's viewpoints from 1965 on association or causation were used on glioma risk and use of mobile or cordless phones.
Methods. All nine viewpoints were evaluated based on epidemiology and laboratory studies.
Results. Strength: meta-analysis of case-control studies gave odds ratio (OR) = 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.31-2.76 with highest cumulative exposure.
Consistency: the risk increased with latency, meta-analysis gave in the 10+ years' latency group OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.20-2.19.
Specificity: increased risk for glioma was in the temporal lobe. Using meningioma cases as comparison group still increased the risk.
Temporality: highest risk was in the 20+ years' latency group, OR = 2.01, 95% CI =1.41-2.88, for wireless phones.
Biological gradient: cumulative use of wireless phones increased the risk.
Plausibility: animal studies showed an increased incidence of glioma and malignant schwannoma in rats exposed to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. There is increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from RF radiation.
Coherence: there is a change in the natural history of glioma and increasing incidence.
Experiment: antioxidants reduced ROS production from RF radiation.
Analogy: there is an increased risk in subjects exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields.
Conclusion. RF radiation should be regarded as a human carcinogen causing glioma.